机械 模具 夹具 数控 车床 工艺 液压 汽车 电机 升降台 控制 Proe CAD 建模 减速器 机械手 齿轮 故障 诊断 自动化 电气 监控 组态 电源 发电 水电 电站 单片机 PLC MATLAB 路径 计算机 Android Linux 电子 通信 管理系统 网站 ASP JSP PHP Java Asp.net 论坛 进销存 图书 考试 Web 购物 点餐 交易 平台 网络规划 配置 C++ C# 土木 建筑 施工 结构 框架 桥梁 水利 公路 隧道 造价 给水 教学楼 办公楼 水库 重力坝 化工 合成 工段 物流 仓储 包装 开题 任务书 外文 文献 翻译 答辩 格式 课程

秒速快3计划

 首 页 机械秒速快3计划 电子电气秒速快3计划 计算机秒速快3计划 土木工程秒速快3计划 视觉传达秒速快3计划 免费秒速快3计划 秒速快3计划资料 毕业论文范文 秒速快3计划论文流程 
垫片
您现在所在的位置:首页 >>毕业论文范文 >> 文章内容
垫片
   我们提供全套秒速快3计划论文服务,联系版权所有©2019秒速快3计划   625110801   
Discuss the construction temperature and crack of the concrete lightly
文章来源:www.amhari.com   发布者:学生毕业作品网站   发布时间:2019-03-26 11:52:03   阅读:674

Discuss the construction temperature and crack of the concrete lightly

The summary , through observation live for many years, through consulting the monograph about stress within the concrete, explain to concrete temperature reason , on-the-spot concrete control and measure , prevention of crack of temperature that crack produce.

Keyword   Concrete  Temperature stress  Crack  Control

The concrete occupies the important position in modern engineering construction. But today, the crack of the concrete is comparatively general, the cracks are nearly omnipresent in the science of bridge building. Though we take various kinds of measures in constructing, careful, but the crack still occurs now and then. Tracing it to its cause, it is one of them incompletely that our change to concrete temperature stress pays attention to. In the large volume concrete, temperature stress and temperature control are significant. This is mainly because of the reason of two respects. First of all, concrete often appear the temperature crack in not constructing, influence the globality and durability of the structure. Secondly, in the course of operating, the temperature change has remarkable influence that can't be ignored on the stress state of the structure. Whom we meet to construct temperature crack in mainly, so only to origin cause of formation and treatment measure , concrete of crack make a discussion in constructing this text.

Reason of a crack

Have many kinds of reasons to produce the crack in the concrete, it is mainly the changes of temperature and humidity, fragility and disparity of the concrete, and the structure is unreasonable, the raw materials not up to standard (if the alkali aggregate react), the template is out of shape, the foundation does not subside etc. evenly . The cement emits a large amount of heat of hydration when the concrete is hardenned, inside temperature is rising constantly, cause the stress of drawing on the surface. In the course of lowering the temperature , is it congeal foundation pay restrain to mix always later stage, will present the stress of drawing within the concrete . Reducing of temperature can surface cause heavy stress of drawing very in concrete too. When these draw the stress and go beyond resisting the ability of splitting of concrete , namely will present the crack . A lot of inside humidity of concrete change very light or change relatively slow, surface humidity might change heavy the violent change takes placing. Such as maintaining thoroughly, when getting wetter when not doing,contract surface there aren't deformation doing, often cause the crack too. The concrete is a kind of fragility material , tensile strength is about 1/10 of the compression strength, is it carry on one's shoulder or back limit when draw out of shape to have *104 only , is it carry on one's shoulder or back limit location when stretch out of shape to there is *104 to add for a long time to add a short time. Because raw materials even, water dust than unstable, transport and build phenomenon of emanating of course, its tensile strength is not even in the same concrete, a lot of resist the ability of drawing very low, it is apt to present the weak position of the crack. Among armored concrete , draw stress to undertake by reinforcing bar mainly , concrete bear stress of keeping just. Or reinforcing bar mix if edge position gone to to congeal present the stress of drawing in the structure in plain concrete, must rely on the concrete oneself to bear . Require to avoid the stress of drawing or only very small stress of drawing appears of the the general design. But the concrete is cooled from maximum temperature to the steady temperature of operating period in constructing, often cause sizable to draw the stress within the concrete. The temperature stress can exceed other outsides and load the stresses caused sometimes, know change law , temperature of stress for carry on reasonable structural design and construct extremely important. Analysis of 2 temperature stresses

Can be divided into following three stages according to the forming process of the temperature stress:

(1)It is early: Build concrete is it is it over basically to send out heat to cement to begin , generally one one day by oneself. Two characteristics at this stage, first, the cement emits a large amount of heat of hydration, second , mix and congeal the changing sharply of elastic model quantity. Because of the change of elastic model quantity , form the remaining stress in the concrete in this period.

(2)Middle period: Up till the concrete is cooled until stability temperature from cement send out heat function basically when expiring, in this period, the temperature stress is mainly because the cooling of the concrete and external temperature change cause, these stresses and remnants stresses that is formed in early days are superposed , mix and congeal the elastic mould amount that goes to and does not change much during this period.

(3)Later period: Operation period after the complete cooling of concrete. Temperature stress whether external temperature change cause mainly, these stresses and first two kinds of remnants stresseses are changed and added .

Can be divided into two kinds according to the reason why the temperature stress causes:

(1)Spontaneous stress: There are not any restraint or totally static structure at the border, if inside temperature is non-linear distribution, temperature stress appearing because structure restrains from each other. For example, the body of mound of the bridge, the physical dimension is relatively large, surface temperature is low when the concrete is cooled, inside temperature is high, present the stress of drawing on the surface, present the stress of pressing in the middle.

(2)Restrain the stress: All of the structure ones or it restrain external one some border,can't out of shape and stress not cause not free. Such as case roof beam roof concrete and guardrail concrete.

This two kinds of temperature stresses draw back stresses caused to act on with the doing of concrete together frequently. It is a more complicated job to want to analyse the distribution , size of the temperature stress accurately according to known temperature. In case of great majority , need to rely on the model test or the number value to calculate. To is it make temperature stress have sizable limp to creep concrete, at the stress accounting temperature, must consider the influence that creep , calculate concretly that no longer states thinly here.

Control and preventing the measure of the crack of 3 temperature

For prevent crack , lighten temperature stress can from control temperature and is it is it set about to restrain terms from two to improve.

The measure of controlling temperature is as follows:

(1)Is it improve aggregate grade mix , is it do rigid concrete to spend , mix mixture to adopt, is it guide angry pharmaceutical or plastification pharmaceutical ,etc. measure in order to reduce cement consumption of concrete to add;

(2)Add water or the water to cool the broken stone in order to reduce the temperature of building of the concrete while mixing and shutting the concrete;

(3)Reduce the thickness of building while building the concrete on hot day, utilize and build the aspect to dispel the heat;

(4)Bury the water pipe underground in the concrete, enter the cold water to lower the temperature openly;

(5)Stipulate rational form removal time, the temperature keeps warm the surface while lowering suddenly, in case that the rapid temperature gradient takes place in the concrete surface;

(6)The concrete with medium and long-term and exposed construction builds a piece of surface or thin wall structure, take the measure of keeping warm in cold season;

The measure of improving condition of restraining is:

(1)Divide and sew and divide one rationally ;

(2)Prevent the foundation from rising and falling too big;

(3)Rational arrangement construction process, prevent the too big discrepancy in elevation and side from exposing for a long time;

In addition, improve the performance of the concrete and improve and resist the ability of splitting, strengthen maintenance , prevent the surface from being done and contracted , especially guarantee the quality of the concrete is very important to preventing the crack, should pay special attention to avoiding producing and running through the crack , the globality resumed its structure after appearing is very difficult, so should rely mainly on preventing the emergence of the running through crack while constructing.

In construction of concrete , for raise turnover rate of template , demand concrete form removal as soon as possible that build newly often. Should consider form removal time properly when concrete temperature is higher than the temperature, so as not to cause the superficial early crack of concrete. Building the early form removal newly, cause very large stress of drawing on the surface, the phenomenon that " temperature is assaulted " appears. Build initial stage in concrete, because heat of hydration is sent out, the surface causes sizable to draw the stress, surface temperature is also higher than temperature at this moment, remove the template at this moment , surface temperature is lowered suddenly, must cause temperature gradient , thus add and draw the stress on the surface , change and add with the heat of hydration stress, in addition, the concrete dries and contracts , the superficial stress of drawing reaches very great number value, have danger of causing the crack, but cover a light-duty heat insulator with on the surface in time after removing the template , for instance foam sponge ,etc., for prevent concrete surface from produce the too big stress of drawing, have remarkable results.

Add muscle influence to large volume temperature stress of concrete very light , because large volume concrete include muscle to be rate very much low. Just have influence on the general armored concrete. On terms that temperature is not very high and the stress is less than limit of surrendering, every performance of the steel is steady, and have nothing to do with stress state , time and temperature. Line bloated coefficient of steel and concrete line bloated coefficient difference very light, take place little internal stress very only between the two while changing in temperature. Because elastic mould amount of steel concrete elastic mould 7~15 of quantity, reach as interior concrete stress tensile strength and when fracturing, the stress of the reinforcing bar will not exceed 10000kg/cm2. . So is it is it prevent tiny appearance difficulty very much of crack from to make use of reinforcing bar to want among concrete. But the crack in the structure generally becomes numerous, the interval is little, the width and depth are smaller after adding the muscle. And if diameter of reinforcing bar detailed and when interval dense, to improve concrete resist result of person who split better. Concrete and surface , armored concrete of structure can take place detailed and shallow crack often, among them the great majority belong to and do and draw back the crack. Though this kind of crack is generally all relatively light, it stills have certain influence on the intensity and durability of the structure.

In order to guarantee concrete project quality , prevent fracturing , improve the durability of the concrete, use the admixture to reduce one of the measures that fractures correctly. Whether is it reduce water is it split pharmaceutical to defend , I summarize his main function in practice to use.

(1)There is pore Dao of a large number of mao in the concrete , produce capillary tension in the capillary after water is evaporated, make concrete is it contract out of shape to do. Increasing the thin aperture of hair can reduce the capillary surface tension , but will make the intensity of concrete reduce . This surface tension theory has already been confirmed in the world as far back as the sixties.

(2)Water dust than influence important factor that concrete shrink, is it reduce water is it split pharmaceutical can make concrete water consumption reduce by 25% to defend to use.

(3)Cement consumption important factor, concrete of person who shrink too, is it add and subtract water is it split concrete reducible 15% of the cement consumption on terms that keep the intensity of concrete of pharmaceutical to defend to mix, its volume is supplemented by increasing aggregate consumption.

(4)Reduce water is it split pharmaceutical can improve consistency of grout , reduce concrete secrete ink to defend, reduce and sink and draw back deforming.

(5)Improve glueing the strength of forming of the grout and aggregate, the concrete improved resists the performance of splitting.

(6)Concrete is it produce stress of drawing to restrain from while shrinking, crack when drawing the stress and is greater than concrete tensilestrength can produce. Reduce water is it split pharmaceutical effective concrete tensile strength of improvement very to defend , improve resisting the performance of splitting of concrete by a wide margin.

(7)It can make the concrete density good to add the admixture to mix , can improve resisting carbonization of concrete effectively , reduce carbonization to shrink.

(8)Is it reduce water is it split slow coagulation time proper concrete under pharmaceutical to defend , on the basis of preventing the fast water of cement from sending out heat effectively to mix, prevent the plasticity shrink that brings because the cement is not congealed for a long time from increasing.

(9)Mix admixture concrete and getting easy and kind , surface easy to feel flat , form little membrane, reduce the moisture to evaporate, reduce drily and shrink. A lot of admixture all have the functions of slow coagulation , increasing and apt , improvement plasticity, the experiment that we should carry on in this respect more in the project practice is compared with and studied, than lean against not improving terms more simple,may getting simple and more direct, economy.

Early maintenance of 4 concrete

Practice has proved , the common crack of concrete , most is the surface crack of different depth, main reason its whether temperature gradient cause cold temperature of area lower too easy to form crack suddenly. So say the warm - keeping of the concrete is especially important to preventing the early crack of surface.

From the viewpoint of temperature stress, should reach and require to keep warm followingly:

1)Prevent concrete internal and external temperature poor and concrete surface gradient from , prevent the surface crack.

2)Prevent concrete from to be ultra and cold , should is it is it make the minimum temperature is not lower than the steady temperature of concrete service time construction time in concrete to try to try one's best.

3)Prevent the old concrete subcooling , in order to reduce the restraint among the old and new concrete.

The early maintenance of the concrete, the main purpose lies in keeping the suitable warm and humid condition , in order to get the result of two respects, on the other hand make the concrete avoid the invasion and attack of the unfavorable and warm , humidity out of shape, the ones that prevent from harmfully are cold to contract and do to contract. On one hand make cement water function go on smoothly , is in the hope of reaching the intensity designed and resisting the ability of splitting.

The suitable warm damp condition is interrelated. Mix warm - keeping measure paid to congeal often protect wet results too. Analyse , water concrete include moisture can meet demand , cement of water have enough and to spare newly theoretically. But because the reason of evaporating etc. often causes losses of the moisture, thus postpone or hinder water of the cement from, the surface concrete receives this kind of adverse effect easiestly and directly. Key period when maintained in initial a few days after so the concrete is built, should pay attention to conscientiously in constructing.

5、Conclusions

Construction temperature and relation of crack in concrete the above carry on preliminary discussion of theory and practice, though the academia has different theories to origin cause of formation and computing technology of the concrete crack, but to concrete prevention and improving the measure suggestion to relatively unify , application in practice result fine too at the same time, concrete to is it observe , compare more more by us to want in constructing, analyse more , summarize more after going wrong , combine many kinds of prevention and deal with the measure, the crack of the concrete can be avoided.

  全套秒速快3计划论文现成成品资料请咨询定做咨询 625110801      返回首页 如转载请注明来源于www.amhari.com  


打印本页 | 关闭窗口
 上一篇文章:多层旅馆设计文献综述
本类最新文章
某某公司“展新绩,创未来”20周 长沙地铁一号线黄兴广场站大客流组 Installation, Ba
Open Data Kit Se Java Learning Pa Why use WLAN
| 关于我们 | 友情链接 | 秒速快3计划招聘 |

Email:domain.com: 版权所有©2019秒速快3计划  625110801 学生毕业作品网站  
本站秒速快3计划毕业论文资料均属原创者所有,仅供学习交流之用,请勿转载并做其他非法用途.如有侵犯您的版权有损您的利益,请联系我们会立即改正或删除有关内容!